The use of smartphones for online learning interactions by elementary school students
Keywords:Online learning, Smartphones for learners, Teacher and students’ learning interaction
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using smartphones for online learning on teachers’ and students’ interactions in learning that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents were 303 elementary school students, randomly selected by filling out questions through a Google form application. 20 items were provided, 10 items for the OLWS variable and 10 items for the TSI variable, which were adopted from several literature articles and adapted to the problem of this research. The data normality test was previously carried out and continued with testing the level of validity and reliability of the instrument, followed by evaluation of the structural model related to hypothesis testing using SPSS and SmartPLS/AMOS. The result determined by the PLS-SEM algorithm is 0.507, which is greater than the recommended value, indicating that the model has a reasonable level of justification for the variance in user behavior objectives. The only hypothesis (H1) is supported by the t-value of 15.399 (> 1.96) and a P-value of 0.000 (0.05), which indicates that OLWS has a positive and significant effect on TSI. Since the teacher's role in transferring knowledge to students requires special, sophisticated, and new equipment that is readily available, easy to use, and that follows technological advances, so the interaction between teachers and students in learning can occur properly, effectively, efficiently, and will encourage quality results.
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