An article must be prepared and submitted in full compliance with not only national and international laws of ethics but also must respect common standards of ethics accepted by academicians. Therefore, all parties carry the responsibility for respecting principles of ethical standards. Please visit: Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
- Author(s) must not contact persons involved in evaluation process during or before manuscript evaluation.
- Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. The names of the individuals who do not contribute to the study must not be included among authors. All those who have made substantial contributions should be listed as co-authors. No author names can be added after submission. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the paper (e.g. language editing or medical writing), they should be recognized in the only acknowledgements section.
- If there is a conflict of interest regarding the study, the process under Conflict of Interest must be followed.
- Articles submitted to PEGEGOG must be original. Citations from other sources must be clearly stated. The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, that this has been appropriately cited or quoted and permission has been obtained where necessary.
- Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have influenced the reported work and that give the work appropriate context within the larger scholarly record. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties, must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source.
- Plagiarism takes many forms, from ‘passing off’ another’s paper as the author’s own paper, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another’s paper (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical behavior and is unacceptable.
- Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, must not be used without the explicit written permission of the author of the work involved in these services.
- Raw data can be requested during the review process. In such a case, authors are asked to provide their raw data as soon as possible.
- Authors are responsible for obtained permissions from related individuals, organizations, etc., if necessary.
- A manuscript cannot be sent to more than one journal at a time for evaluation.
- If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the manuscript contains a statement that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) have approved them. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
- For human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and associated guidelines, or EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes] URL
- Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to PEGEGOG on request.
- WAME define conflict of interest as “a divergence between an individual’s private interests (competing interests) and his or her responsibilities to scientific and publishing activities, such that a reasonable observer might wonder if the individual’s behavior or judgment was motivated by considerations of his or her competing interests”. All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could be viewed as inappropriately influencing (bias) their work.
- All sources of financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article should be disclosed, as should the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
- When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in their own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper if deemed necessary by the editor. If the editor or the publisher learn from a third party that a published work contains an error, it is the obligation of the author to cooperate with the editor, including providing evidence to the editor where requested.
Ethical appropriateness checklist
- Have you obtained official permissions for data collection/use, etc.?
- If you have used copyrighted materials, have you received copyright permissions?
- If you have used data, tools, or procedures from previously published sources, have you obtained necessary permissions from persons or institutions that can claim copyright?
- Have you cited the information from other published sources appropriately?
- Have you obtained consent letters from your participants or can you provide answers to the questions from the Editor regarding this issue?
- If you have used animals in your study, have you applied the procedures within appropriate limits?
- Have you taken necessary precautions to maintain the confidentiality and safety of the participants or other parties participated in your study?
- If there is more than one author, has each author read and agreed on the content of the submitted version?
- The editor of a learned journal is solely and independently responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published, often working in conjunction with the relevant society. The editor may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding issues such as libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers (or society officers) in making these decisions.
- The editors take as references Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) “Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors”. This has a large resource on the topic of ethical conduct of journal editors, authors and reviewers. PEGEGOG also has an extensive number of resources to help new and established editors to undertake their role as editors.
- The editor shall ensure that the peer review process (double-blind reviewers) is fair, unbiased, and timely. Research articles must typically be reviewed by at least two external and independent reviewers, and where necessary the editor should seek additional opinions. The editor shall select reviewers who have suitable expertise in the relevant field and shall follow best practice in avoiding the selection of fraudulent peer reviewers. The editor shall review all disclosures of potential conflicts of interest and suggestions for self-citation made by reviewers in order to determine whether there is any potential for bias.
- The editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.
- The editorial policies of the journal should encourage transparency and complete, honest reporting, and the editor should ensure that peer reviewers and authors have a clear understanding of what is expected of them. The editor shall use the journal’s standard electronic submission system for all journal communications.
- The editor shall establish, along with the publisher, a transparent mechanism for appeal against editorial decisions.
- The editor must not attempt to influence the journal’s ranking by artificially increasing any journal metric. In particular, the editor shall not require that references to that (or any other) journal’s articles be included except for genuine scholarly reasons and authors should not be required to include references to the editor’s own articles or products and services in which the editor has an interest.
- The editor must protect the confidentiality of all material submitted to the journal and all communications with reviewers, unless otherwise agreed with the relevant authors and reviewers. In exceptional circumstances and in consultation with the publisher, the editor may share limited information with editors of other journals where deemed necessary to investigate suspected research misconduct. The editor must protect reviewers’ identities. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.
- Any potential editorial conflicts of interest should be declared to the publisher in writing prior to the appointment of the editor, and then updated if and when new conflicts arise. The publisher may publish such declarations in the journal.
- The editor must not be involved in decisions about papers which s/he has written him/herself or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Further, any such submission must be subject to all of the journal’s usual procedures, peer review must be handled independently of the relevant author/editor and their research groups, and there must be a clear statement to this effect on any such paper that is published. The editor should work to safeguard the integrity of the published record by reviewing and assessing reported or suspected misconduct (research, publication, reviewer and editorial), in conjunction with the publisher (or society).
- Such measures will generally include contacting the author of the manuscript or paper and giving due consideration to the respective complaint or claims made, but may also include further communications to the relevant institutions and research bodies. The editor shall further make appropriate use of the publisher’s systems for the detection of misconduct, such as plagiarism.
- An editor presented with convincing evidence of misconduct should coordinate with the publisher (and/or society) to arrange the prompt publication of a correction, retraction, expression of concern, or other correction to the record, as may be relevant
- Storing all records.
- Supporting freedom of thought.
Scientific Committee Responsibilities
- To offer expertise in their specialist area.
- To review submitted manuscripts.
- To advise on journal policy and scope.
- To work with the Editor to ensure ongoing development of the journal.
- Which would promote the journal, which they might also help to organize and/or guest edit.
- To attract new and established authors and article submissions.
- To submit some of their own work for consideration, ensuring that they adhere to Conflict of Interest rules and stating their relationship to the journal.
- Reviewers should agree to review submissions only relevant to their specific fields.
- Reviewers should not Access to information about author(s) identity. In case of accessing or receiving such information, evaluation process must be ended.
- The evaluation process should be completed in total objectivity and confidentiality. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Reviewers should be aware of any personal bias they may have and take this into account when reviewing a paper. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments. If a reviewer suggests that an author includes citations to the reviewer’s (or their associates’) work, this must be for genuine scientific reasons and not with the intention of increasing the reviewer’s citation count or enhancing the visibility of their work (or that of their associates).
- If reviewers believe that there is a conflict of interest, they should reject to evaluate the manuscript and inform the Editor on the issue. Reviewers should consult the Editor before agreeing to review a paper where they have potential conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.
- Reviewers can use the content of the manuscripts they evaluate only after acceptance. They cannot use any information from the manuscripts rejected for publication.
- Evaluation process must be completed objectively on the content of the manuscript. Personal characteristics such as nationality, gender, religion, political views, or commercial conflicts must not interfere with the reviewers’ decisions.
- Reviewers should have a constructive and polite attitude towards submitted work. They should avoid degrading or offensive language in communication with authors.
- Reviewers should comply with evaluation deadlines and ethical responsibilities.
- Editors are fully responsible for publication processes. Because editors hold the responsibility of decisions on the submissions and published articles, the Publisher declares and guarantees free editor decisions to be maintained.
- The Publisher holds the right of property and copyright of each published work and has the responsibility to keep a copy.
- The Publisher has the responsibility to take all the precautions to avoid scientific exploitation, plagiarism crimes against the Editor. The publisher has a supporting, investing and nurturing role in the scholarly communication process but is also ultimately responsible for ensuring that best practice is followed in its publications.
- The Publisher promote best practice by offering editors membership of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
Protecting the Reliability of Scientific Work
Ethical Considerations in Reporting Research Results
A sound scientific method is based on reproducibility and verifiability. Data, including visual materials, cannot be manipulated, changed, or reduced in order to verify research hypotheses or to obtain desirable results.
In case there is a mistake in the published version of an article, the author(s) must announce the mistake(s) to the audience. When such a mistake is recognized by the author(s), the Editor is informed for correction. Each corrected version and the corrections made are announced to the audience on the Journal’s website.
Data Storage and Sharing
In case the reliability of the submitted research is questioned, author(s) are responsible to provide the data used to the Editor. If authors fail to provide their data, the submission is rejected and is not accepted for evaluation again. Authors are required to store the data, applications procedures, and other materials utilized in their submissions for at least 5 years. After publication, if other researchers or authors request, data can be shared. Before sharing data, information, codes, or symbols about participants’/subjects’ identities must be deleted. If a study is funded by an institution, the rights of the institution must be protected and relevant acknowledgement must be added. If authors desire to share data, there must be a signed letter of agreement between the author(s) and the owner(s) of the data regarding the aim(s), the method(s), the scope, the conditions, and the limits for the use of the data.
Re-Publishing Part of or Full Data
Re-publishing data refers to when findings from an accepted paper are re-used in another publication as if original. Re-publishing is an act of violation of copyright and related regulations because an author cannot give copyright permission for the same work to more than one entity. All or part of a previously published work cannot be published again or cited over the appropriate limits. A previously published work or one with significantly similar scope cannot be submitted for publication again. Papers presented in conferences but not published in conference proceedings can be submitted for publication by stating the conference at which the paper was presented in a footnote. Papers which have been presented and published in conference proceedings cannot be submitted for publication.
In case authors wish their work to reach other audience, the following conditions must be met to re-publish the results:
- The re-published version must be considerably shorter than the original one.
- A notification that the work has been previously published and relevant referencing must be clearly given in a footnote.
- If the tables, graphs, or other visuals that have been used in the previously published version are used in re-publication, this must be clearly stated and referenced in a footnote.
- The original work must be properly added to the references list.
Findings should be presented in unity and should not be presented in only some parts. Publishing multiple studies each of which cover a part of the same bulk of findings can be misleading. However, in cases where research has a wider scope, conducted during long periods, or has interdisciplinary focus, multiple studies based on the same data source can be published. When studies have interdisciplinary nature, publishing findings on one source may not be sufficient. If studies are conducted in a long period, findings obtained in different phases of this period can contribute to the field, and thus these can be published provided the phase is stated. In this case, the research based on previous phases needs to be cited. If a study conducted in long period is published following the studies based on the findings from previous phases, repeating the same findings should be avoided and quotes from such previous work should be cited.
The Editor should be notified when multiple studies based on the same research are submitted for evaluation. The editor decides whether the secondary studies meet the publication requirements.
Global or Self Plagiarism
Authors cannot use other researchers’ opinions or thoughts as their own. Similarly, authors cannot use thoughts, opinions, and parts of research from their own previous work without citing properly.
Protection of Participants’ Rights and Interests
Confidentiality of the information obtained from participants should be maintained. Therefore, submitted work must not include information about participants’ identity. Participants should agree to be involved in research and when there is a hierarchical relationship between the researcher and the participants (e.g., teacher-student, director-teacher, etc.), researchers must not pressure participants to give consent. Particularly, in case an academician perceives his or her students as “potential subjects”, this would lead to misleading or subjective data resulting from reluctant responses from students and to violating participants’ rights and interests. Therefore, a special care should be given not to force students to participate.
If a study is based on the evaluation of a product or a service, the author(s) must not have a conflict of interest or a commercial benefit with the institution or the organization. In case there is a conflict of interest or such a potential, this should be indicated in the study as a limitation even if it is thought not to influence objectivity of the results.
Protection of Intellectual Copyright
Authorship right is gained by contributing considerably to research and by taking the responsibility of a published work. Considerable contribution may refer to: formulizing research problems or hypotheses, developing research design or application procedures, conducting statistical analyses, interpreting results of analyses, or writing part of a study. Individuals contributing to such processes are listed among the authors of the study. Individuals who contribute to a study other than mentioned means are cited in footnotes explaining their contributions. These contributors can help research by helping to create data collection tools, giving advice on data analysis methods, helping in data collection process, assisting to reach participants, or conducting routine observations.
In order to determine the order of authors in author list, each author is evaluated based on his or her contributions to the study and the one who has contributed most is written at the top of the list. When the contributions of the authors are thought to be equal, the list is done in alphabetical order and a note explaining the order of the list is added. Organizational or professional status or titles are not considered as a factor in deciding on the order of author list.
According to Article 35 of Intellectual and Arts Copyright Act Number 5846 (and Act number 4630 that changed it), any type of information taken from other sources must be cited and referenced. Act Number 4630 states that:
“Article 35 – Other sources can be quoted in the following cases:
- Quoting sentences or parts from publicly known work in a scientific or literary work;
- Including themes, patterns, passages, or parts from its characteristics of a previously published musical composition into musical work;
- Including acceptable portions of publicly known work of art or other published work in a scientific work in a way that the included part or the whole is clarified and its content is explained;
- Including acceptable portions of publicly known work of art in scientific conferences or lessons and using projections to show in order to talk about or explain the work.
Quotes or integrations must be made clear. The parts of the work quoted or integrated must be clearly and properly cited.
In case the limits explained in the Act are violated, the act is considered as a crime and imposes punishment regulated in Article 71 of Act Number 4630:
“Article 71 - (Changed Article: 01/11/1983 -2936/Article 11; Changed Article: 23/01/2008-5728 S.K./ Article 138)
Violating intellectual and art work moral, commercial or relevant rights protected under this Article:
- Individuals using, reproducing, changing, distributing, broadcasting using any audio or visual means, publishing, or selling illegally produced copies, lending, renting, purchasing for commercial purposes, importing or exporting, keeping for non-personal needs, or storing a work of art, a performance, a phonogram, or a production without obtaining legal permission from its owner are sentenced to imprisonment between 1 and 5 years and are fined.
- Individuals giving their names to the work of others are sentenced between 6 months and 2 years and are fined. If this act is followed by distributing or publishing the work, upper limit of imprisonment is 5 years and no fine is applied.
- Individuals discussing the content of others’ work publicly without obtaining legal permission are sentenced up to 6 months imprisonment.
- Individuals citing other work wrongly, insufficiently or misleadingly are sentenced up to 6 months imprisonment.
- Individuals reproducing, distributing, or publishing others’ work, performances, phonograms, or products using other well-known individuals’ names are sentenced to imprisonment between 3 months and 1 year and are fined.
Individuals who commit crimes stated in Paragraph 1 of the Additional Article 4 of this Act and individuals who provide content information and continue to commit the crimes mentioned are sentenced to imprisonment between 3 months and 1 year in case there are no other reasons for harsher penalties.
If individuals who sell or buy illegally reproduced, distributed, or published others’ work, performances, phonograms, or products reports the names of people from whom they have obtained the work before prosecution process may receive remission or may not be sentenced at all.”