Students’ Critical Thinking Skills during the Pandemic through Online GI-DMM


  • Siti Zubaidah Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
  • Evrialiani Rosba
  • Susriyati Mahanal
  • Sulisetijono
  • Asham Bin Jamaluddin



critical thinking skills, college students, online GI-DMM, online conventional-DMM


The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the higher education system in Indonesia, where faculty members and students must learn online to prevent and minimize virus transmission. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of online GI-DMM (Group Investigation-Digital Mind Map) on the critical thinking skills of college students. This study is quasi-experimental and used a pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design. Fifty-four students from STKIP PGRI West Sumatra, Indonesia participated in this study. Data were collected using twelve essay questions and a scoring rubric used to measure six indicators of critical thinking ability, namely Focus, Reason, Conclusion, Situation, Clarity, and Overview (FRISCO). Data analysis was performed using ANCOVA followed by tests for normality and homogeneity of variance. The results showed a statistically significant difference in critical thinking between the online GI-DMM group and the online conventional DMM group. The critical thinking score of the students enrolled in the GI-DMM online course was higher (80.07) than that of the students engaged in traditional learning (71.06). Consequently, GI-DMM can be used in online learning to improve the critical thinking skills of students in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic and the new post-pandemic era


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How to Cite

Siti Zubaidah, Evrialiani Rosba, Susriyati Mahanal, Sulisetijono, & Asham Bin Jamaluddin. (2024). Students’ Critical Thinking Skills during the Pandemic through Online GI-DMM. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 14(4), 245–252.