The use of proverb as a metaphor in solution-focused brief counseling: A preliminary study and framework for school counselors


  • Hasrul Hasrul Department of Elementary School Teacher Education STKIP Kie Raha, Ternate, Indonesia



Counseling, Metaphor, Proverb, School Counselor, SFBC


This article is a preliminary study that aims to provide a theoretical review of the use of proverbs as a metaphor in solution-focused brief counseling (SFBC) approach, and to provide a framework for school counselors. The method used is a narrative literature review of several main themes; proverbs in counseling, the concept of metaphor, and the SFBC approach. The findings of this study indicate that in the last 10 years, the number of articles related to the topic of proverbs in counseling is still very small. Another finding theoretically is that the proverb is a form of metaphor because both are cultural products so that they can be used in counseling. In addition, there is a lot of relevance between metaphor and SFBC, when viewed from the philosophical foundations aspect, orientation or purpose of counseling aspects, aspects of counseling techniques, and therapeutic communication aspects. Thus, the proverbs can be used in the SFBC approach through the technique of metaphor. We recommend a framework for counselors from certain communities or cultures to be able to adopt their proverb and work with the SFBC approach.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahammed, S. (2010). Applying Qur’anic Metaphors in Counseling. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 32(4), 248–255.

Ariantini, N., Naser, M. N., & Hanafi, A. (2019). Konstruksi Teknik Konseling Berbasis Budaya Model KIPAS untuk Meningkatkan Kecakapan Sosial dan Kematangan Karier Siswa. NUSANTARA of RESEARCH, 6(1), 26–32.

Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2016). Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories and Interventions. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Ciuffardi, G., Scavelli, S., & Leonardi, A. (2013). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in Combination With Fantasy and Creative Language in Working With Children: A Brief Report. International Journal of Solution-Focused Practices, 1(1), 44–51.

Clarke, J. K. (2014). Utilization of Clients ’ Metaphors to Punctuate Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Interventions : A Case Illustration Utilization of Clients ’ Metaphors to Punctuate Solution- Focused Brief Therapy Interventions : A Case Illustration. Contemporary Family Therapy, 36, 426–441.

Corey, G. (2016). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Cottone, R. R. (2012). Paradigms of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Cottleville, Missouri: Robert Rocco Cottone at Smashwords.

Cronin, P., Ryan, P., Coughlan, M. (2008). Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. British Journal of Nursing, 17(1), 38–43.

de Shazer, S., & Dolan, Y. (2007). More Than Miracles: The State of the Art of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy. New York: The Haworth Press.

Disassa, G. A., & Into, T. B. (2020). Indigenous Marriage and Family Counseling among Oromo Community in Ethiopia. Diversitas Journal, 5(4), 3008–3029.

Gelo, O. C. G., & Mergenthaler, E. (2012). Unconventional metaphors and emotional-cognitive regulation in a metacognitive interpersonal therapy. Psychotherapy Research, 22(2), 159–175.

Genuchi, M. C., Hopper, B., & Morrison, C. R. (2016). Using Metaphors to Facilitate Exploration of Emotional Content in Counseling With College Men. Journal of Men’s Studies, 1–17.

Gingerich, W. J., & Peterson, L. T. (2013). Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(3), 266–283.

Gong, H., & Hsu, W. (2016). The Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Group Therapy in Ethnic Chinese School Settings: A Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 67(3), 383–409.

Kim, J., Kelly, M., & Franklin, C. (2017). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in Schools: A 360-Degree View of the Research and Practice Principles. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kim, J. S., Franklin, C., Zhang, Y., Liu, X., Qu, Y., & Chen, H. (2015). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in China: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 24(3), 187–201.

Komasi, S., Saeidi, M., Zakiei, A., Amiri, M. M., & Soltani, B. (2017). Cognitive Restructuring Based on Metaphor Therapy to Challenge the Irrational Beliefs of Drug Addicts Undergoing Buprenorphine Treatment. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction, 6(1), 1–9.

Kopp, R. R. (1995). Metaphor Therapy: Using Client-Generated Metaphors in Psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/ Mazel.

Litam, S. D. A. (2020). “Take Your Kung-Flu Back to Wuhan”: Counseling Asians, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders With Race-Based Trauma Related to COVID-19. The Professional Counselor, 10(2), 144–156.

Liu, L., Zhao, X., & Miller, J. K. (2012). Use of metaphors in Chinese family therapy: a qualitative study. Journal of Family Therapy, 0(0), 1–20.

Mashar, R., & Nurihsan, J. (2017). Metaphor Counseling and Students Responsibility on Elementary School. GUIDENA: Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, Psikologi, Bimbingan Dan Konseling, 7(2), 140–152.

Mcleod, J. (2013). An Introduction To Counselling (Fifth). New York: Open University Press.

McRobie, S., & Agee, M. (2017). Pacific counsellors’ use of indigenous values, proverbs, metaphors, symbols, and stories in their counselling practices. New Zealand Journal of Counselling, 37(2), 103–127.

Meyer, D. D., & Cottone, R. R. (2013). Solution-Focused Therapy as a Culturally Acknowledging Approach With American Indians. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 41(1), 47–55.

Owu-Ewie, C. (2019). Proverbs in marriage: Counselling role and implications. Legon Journal of the Humanities, 30(1), 24.

Rahill, G., Jean-Gilles, M., Thomlison, B., & Pinto-Lopez, E. (2011). Metaphors as Contextual Evidence for Engaging Haitian Clients in Practice: A Case Study. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 65(2), 133–149.

Rahman, D. H. (2015). Keefektifan Teknik Metafora dalam Bingkai Konseling Realitas untuk Meningkatkan Harga Diri Siswa. JKI (Jurnal Konseling Indonesia), 1(1), 47–53.

Robert, T., & Kelly, V. A. (2010). Practice & Theory Metaphor as an Instrument for Orchestrating Change in Counselor Training and the Counseling Process. Journal of Counseling and Development Development, 88(2), 182–188.

Shoushtari, M. T. (2015). The efectiveness of Metaphor Therapy on Depression among Female Students. International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, 9(9), 3118–3122.

Tay, D. (2012). Applying the Notion of Metaphor Types to Enhance Counseling Protocols. Journal of Counseling and Development Development, 90(2), 142–149.

Tay, D. (2014). Metaphor Theory for Counselling Professionals. The Bloomsbury Companion to Cognitive Linguistics.

Tay, D. (2016). The Nuances of Metaphor Theory for Constructivist Psychotherapy. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 00(0), 1–17.

Wagener, A. E. (2017). Metaphor in Professional Counseling. The Professional Counselor, 7(2), 144–154.

Wołońciej, M. (2018). Youth Education with Proverbs: A Case Study of Polish Proverbs about Work. Multi Colors: An International Journal of Educational Research and Theory, 1(1), 51–65.

Xu, J. (2010). The Impact of Postmodernism on Counseling: Boon or Bane?. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 32(1), 66–74.

Zatloukal, L., Žákovský, D., & Bezdíčková, E. (2019). Utilizing Metaphors in Solution-Focused Therapy. Contemporary Family Therapy, 41(1), 24-36.

Zubaidah. (2019). Telaah Nilai Pepatah Minangkabau Sasek Di Ujuang Jalan Suruik Ka Pangka Jalan dan Kontribusinya Dalam Konseling Budaya. Alfuad: Jurnal Sosial Keagamaan, 3(1), 41–51




How to Cite

Hasrul, H. (2022). The use of proverb as a metaphor in solution-focused brief counseling: A preliminary study and framework for school counselors. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 13(1), 267–274.